Knowing about God

God is one

The Lord Is God – the Only God
In teaching that God is one, the Bible indicates that God is a single entity or being.

Deut 6:4 Hear, O Israel: The Lord our God, the Lord is one.a ▤

a Or The Lord our God is one Lord; or The Lord is our God, the Lord is one; or The Lord is our God, the Lord alone

Mark 12:29, 32 Jesus answered, “The most important is, ‘Hear, O Israel: The Lord our God, the Lord is one. ▤ … 32And the scribe said to him, “You are right, Teacher. You have truly said that he is one, and there is no other besides him. ▤

Rom 3:29-30 Or is God the God of Jews only? Is he not the God of Gentiles also? Yes, of Gentiles also, 30since God is one—who will justify the circumcised by faith and the uncircumcised through faith. ▤

Gal 3:20 Now an intermediary implies more than one, but God is one. ▤

James 2:19 You believe that God is one; you do well. Even the demons believe—and shudder! ▤

God is spirit
God’s nature is spirit; he is a spiritual being. So God is not a physical being, in contrast to people and particularly to idols.

John 4:24 God is spirit, and those who worship him must worship in spirit and truth. ▤

Isa 31:3a The Egyptians are man, and not God, and their horses are flesh, and not spirit. ▤

The parallel phrases “man, and not God” and “flesh, and not spirit” imply that, in contrast to men, God is spirit.

Job 10:4 Have you eyes of flesh? Do you see as man sees? ▤

The direct implication here is that God does not have eyes of flesh. This points to the fact that God as a whole is not flesh – he is spirit.

Ps 139:7 Where shall I go from your Spirit? Or where shall I flee from your presence? ▤

The correlation of “your presence” with “your Spirit” (cf. Ps 51:11) – or “your spirit” (NLT, NRSV) – arguably points to God being spirit.

God is not a metal or stone image made by man:
Acts 17:29 Being then God’s offspring, we ought not to think that the divine being is like gold or silver or stone, an image formed by the art and imagination of man. ▤

God cannot be seen by people . . .
Deut 4:12, 15 Then the Lord spoke to you out of the midst of the fire. You heard the sound of words, but saw no form; there was only a voice. ▤ … 15“Therefore watch yourselves very carefully. Since you saw no form on the day that the Lord spoke to you at Horeb out of the midst of the fire, … ▤

God has no physical, observable form.

Job 9:11 Behold, he passes by me, and I see him not; he moves on, but I do not perceive him. ▤

Matt 6:6 But when you pray, go into your room and shut the door and pray to your Father who is in secret. And your Father who sees in secret will reward you. ▤

One implication of God being “in secret” is that he is “unseen” (GNT, NIV).

John 1:18 No one has ever seen God; the only God,b who is at the Father’s side,c he has made him known. ▤

b Or the only One, who is God; some manuscripts the only Son

c Greek in the bosom of the Father

1 John 4:12a also states: “No one has ever seen God…”

John 5:37 And the Father who sent me has himself borne witness about me. His voice you have never heard, his form you have never seen, … ▤

In saying that they had never seen God’s form, Jesus may well have been meaning that like all people they had not “seen him face to face” (CEV, NLT; cf. GNT). As such it is pertinent to this subsection. But given the context, the second part of this verse may be referring more to the Jews’ lack of spiritual perception (cf. AMP), in particular in the face of God’s revelation through Jesus.

John 6:46 … not that anyone has seen the Father except he who is from God; he has seen the Father. ▤

Col 1:15 He is the image of the invisible God, the firstborn of all creation. ▤

1Tim 6:15-16a … which he will display at the proper time—he who is the blessed and only Sovereign, the King of kings and Lord of lords, 16who alone has immortality, who dwells in unapproachable light, whom no one has ever seen or can see. ▤

. . . In some sense, God is said to have been “seen”
See also:

Visions of God
God’s glory manifests his presence . . .
. . . God’s glory is spoken of as manifesting his presence in his temples
Gen 16:13 So she called the name of the Lord who spoke to her, “You are a God of seeing,”d for she said, “Truly here I have seen him who looks after me.”e ▤

d Or You are a God who sees me

e Hebrew Have I really seen him here who sees me? or Would I have looked here for the one who sees me?

Verse 11 indicates that it was “the angel of the Lord” who spoke here to Hagar, rather than necessarily God himself. (Regarding the relationship to God of “the angel of the Lord”, see the comment below on Judg 6:22-23.) The rendering in the text note provides a further possible meaning.

Gen 32:30 So Jacob called the name of the place Peniel,f saying, “For I have seen God face to face, and yet my life has been delivered.” ▤

f Peniel means the face of God

Verses 24-30 appear to speak of Jacob encountering a manifestation of God, possibly in the form of an angel.

Ex 24:9-11 Then Moses and Aaron, Nadab, and Abihu, and seventy of the elders of Israel went up, 10and they saw the God of Israel. There was under his feet as it were a pavement of sapphire stone, like the very heaven for clearness. 11And he did not lay his hand on the chief men of the people of Israel; they beheld God, and ate and drank. ▤

The fact that the description of what they saw of God is restricted merely to what was under his feet, arguably suggests that they did not see the whole of God.

Ex 33:11, 20 Thus the Lord used to speak to Moses face to face, as a man speaks to his friend. When Moses turned again into the camp, his assistant Joshua the son of Nun, a young man, would not depart from the tent. ▤ … 20But,” he said, “you cannot see my face, for man shall not see me and live.” ▤

The phrase “face to face” (v. 11) may be a figure of speech emphasizing the directness and clarity of God’s communication with Moses. This is supported by v. 20, with God saying to Moses “you cannot see my face” (and v. 23 – “my face shall not be seen”). Note that like v. 20 there are other verses that refer to seeing God resulting in death (cf. Gen 32:30 ↑; Ex 24:9-11 ↑; Judg 6:22-23 ↓; Judg 13:21-22 ↓; Ex 19:21; 1Sam 6:19-20; Isa 6:5-7). Sinful, unworthy people cannot look upon the holy, almighty God and live.

Num 12:7-8 Not so with my servant Moses. He is faithful in all my house. 8With him I speak mouth to mouth, clearly, and not in riddles, and he beholds the form of the Lord. Why then were you not afraid to speak against my servant Moses? ▤

The phrase “mouth to mouth” (v. 8) is often translated “face to face”. Note that Moses is said to behold – or see (cf. GNT, NCV, NIRV, NIV, NKJV, NLT) – God’s “form”, which quite likely implies that he did not: see God in all his fullness; or necessarily see God’s face (cf. Ex 3:20 ↑).

Judg 6:22-23 Then Gideon perceived that he was the angel of the Lord. And Gideon said, “Alas, O Lord God! For now I have seen the angel of the Lord face to face.” 23But the Lord said to him, “Peace be to you. Do not fear; you shall not die.” ▤

Here and in 13:21-22 immediately below, it is the angel of the Lord who is seen. Although he is correlated with God (v. 23), possibly this is only in the sense that he is speaking on behalf of God (cf. Note: “The angel of the Lord” is identified with God).

Judg 13:21-22 The angel of the Lord appeared no more to Manoah and to his wife. Then Manoah knew that he was the angel of the Lord. 22And Manoah said to his wife, “We shall surely die, for we have seen God.” ▤

Heb 11:27 By faith he left Egypt, not being afraid of the anger of the king, for he endured as seeing him who is invisible. ▤

This may allude back to the expression earlier in Hebrews 11 of being “the conviction of things not seen” (v. 1), possibly meaning that Moses persevered “as if he could see” God (NCV; cf. GNT). Alternatively it may refer to Moses’ encounter with God at the burning bush and his ongoing close communication with God (cf. Ex 3:11, 20 ↑; Num 12:7-8 ↑).

The Lord’s visible appearance to Abraham, conversing with him:
Gen 18:1-2, 13-14, 25-26 And the Lord appeared to him by the oaksg of Mamre, as he sat at the door of his tent in the heat of the day. 2He lifted up his eyes and looked, and behold, three men were standing in front of him. When he saw them, he ran from the tent door to meet them and bowed himself to the earth ▤ … 13The Lord said to Abraham, “Why did Sarah laugh and say, ‘Shall I indeed bear a child, now that I am old?’ 14Is anything too hardh for the Lord? At the appointed time I will return to you, about this time next year, and Sarah shall have a son.” ▤ … 25[Abraham:] Far be it from you to do such a thing, to put the righteous to death with the wicked, so that the righteous fare as the wicked! Far be that from you! Shall not the Judge of all the earth do what is just?” 26And the Lord said, “If I find at Sodom fifty righteous in the city, I will spare the whole place for their sake.” ▤

g Or terebinths

h Or wonderful

As well as the use of the title “the Lord”, the content of the conversation suggests that this was an appearance of the Lord. Many commentators consider that this was quite likely the angel of the Lord.

God is everywhere, not just in temples
See also:

a) God is always with his people
Prov 15:3 The eyes of the Lord are in every place, keeping watch on the evil and the good. ▤

Ps 139:5-10 You hem me in, behind and before, and lay your hand upon me. 6Such knowledge is too wonderful for me; it is high; I cannot attain it. 7Where shall I go from your Spirit? Or where shall I flee from your presence? 8If I ascend to heaven, you are there! If I make my bed in Sheol, you are there! 9If I take the wings of the morning and dwell in the uttermost parts of the sea, 10even there your hand shall lead me, and your right hand shall hold me. ▤

Jer 23:23-24 Am I a God at hand, declares the Lord, and not a God far away? 24Can a man hide himself in secret places so that I cannot see him? declares the Lord. Do I not fill heaven and earth? declares the Lord. ▤

Num 14:21 But truly, as I live, and as all the earth shall be filled with the glory of the Lord, … ▤

God’s glory is often linked with his presence, and as such the sense of the latter part of the verse may be: “…my presence fills the earth” (GNT). With the future tense of the verse as it here (cf. AMP, NASB, NKJV, NRSV), the meaning may be that God’s glory and presence will become clearly manifested throughout the earth.

1Ki 8:27 But will God indeed dwell on the earth? Behold, heaven and the highest heaven cannot contain you; how much less this house that I have built! ▤

Acts 7:48-50 Yet the Most High does not dwell in houses made by hands, as the prophet says, 49“‘Heaven is my throne, and the earth is my footstool. What kind of house will you build for me, says the Lord, or what is the place of my rest? 50Did not my hand make all these things?’ ▤

The first statement in v. 49 speaks of God being present in and even throughout heaven and earth – as opposed to merely within temples (vv. 48, 49b). Note that the fact that God has made all things (v. 50) points to the absurdity of any notion of him being confined to a building (cf. Acts 17:24 ↓).

Acts 17:24 The God who made the world and everything in it, being Lord of heaven and earth, does not live in temples made by man,i … ▤

i Greek made by hands

Acts 17:27-28 … that they should seek God, in the hope that they might feel their way toward him and find him. Yet he is actually not far from each one of us, 28for “‘In him we live and move and have our being’;k as even some of your own poets have said, “‘For we are indeed his offspring.’l ▤

k Probably from Epimenides of Crete

l From Aratus’s poem “Phainomena”

Following his assertion that God “he is actually not far from each one of us” (v. 27b), in v. 28a Paul appears to be quoting the Cretan poet Epimenides to illustrate that our existence and its continuation are dependent on God enveloping us.

Eph 4:6 … one God and Father of all, who is over all and through all and in all. ▤

Here “all” may well be speaking of all things (cf. NCV) – making the verse particularly pertinent to this subsection. However it may instead primarily be speaking of all believers.

Visions of God
Isa 6:1-4 In the year that King Uzziah died I saw the Lord sitting upon a throne, high and lifted up; and the trains of his robe filled the temple. 2Above him stood the seraphim. Each had six wings: with two he covered his face, and with two he covered his feet, and with two he flew. 3And one called to another and said: “Holy, holy, holy is the Lord of hosts; the whole earth is full of his glory!”t 4And the foundations of the thresholds shook at the voice of him who called, and the house was filled with smoke. ▤

s Or hem

t Or may his glory fill the whole earth

The “seraphim” (v. 2) are apparently a high order or class of angelic beings. Their presence and activity (vv. 2-4) accentuates God’s glory.

Ezek 1:26-28 And above the expanse over their heads there was the likeness of a throne, in appearance like sapphire;u and seated above the likeness of a throne was a likeness with a human appearance. 27And upward from what had the appearance of his waist I saw as it were gleaming metal, like the appearance of fire enclosed all around. And downward from what had the appearance of his waist I saw as it were the appearance of fire, and there was brightness around him.v 28Like the appearance of the bow that is in the cloud on the day of rain, so was the appearance of the brightness all around. Such was the appearance of the likeness of the glory of the Lord. And when I saw it, I fell on my face, and I heard the voice of one speaking. ▤

u Or lapis lazuli

v Or it

God is described in like-terms in 8:2 as part of another vision of God – “Then I looked, and behold, a form that had the appearance of a man. Below what appeared to be his waist was fire, and above his waist was something like the appearance of brightness, like gleaming metal.”

Ezek 43:1-3 Then he led me to the gate, the gate facing east. 2And behold, the glory of the God of Israel was coming from the east. And the sound of his coming was like the sound of many waters, and the earth shone with his glory. 3And the vision I saw was just like the vision that I had seen when hew came to destroy the city, and just like the vision that I had seen by the Chebar canal. And I fell on my face. ▤

w Some Hebrew manuscripts and Vulgate; most Hebrew manuscripts when I

The other visions referred to are in chs. 8-11 and chs. 1-3 (cf. Ezek 1:26-28 ↑) respectively.

Dan 7:9-10 As I looked, thrones were placed, and the Ancient of Days took his seat; his clothing was white as snow, and the hair of his head like pure wool; his throne was fiery flames; its wheels were burning fire. 10A stream of fire issued and came out from before him; a thousand thousands served him, and ten thousand times ten thousand stood before him; the court sat in judgment, and the books were opened. ▤

Rev 4:2-5 At once I was in the Spirit, and behold, a throne stood in heaven, with one seated on the throne. 3And he who sat there had the appearance of jasper and carnelian, and around the throne was a rainbow that had the appearance of an emerald. 4Around the throne were twenty-four thrones, and seated on the thrones were twenty-four elders, clothed in white garments, with golden crowns on their heads. 5From the throne came flashes of lightning, and rumblingsx and peals of thunder, and before the throne were burning seven torches of fire, which are the seven spirits of God, … ▤

x Or voices, or sounds

The “twenty-four elders” (v. 4) are quite possibly a high order or class of angelic beings. The “seven spirits of God” (v. 5) is usually interpreted as referring to the Holy Spirit.

God’s presence has been manifested in a cloud
See also:

Ex 13:21 ⇓; Deut 4:11 ⇓; Deut 5:22 ⇓
God’s glory manifests his presence . . .
. . . God’s glory is spoken of as manifesting his presence in his temples
Ex 16:10-11 And as soon as Aaron spoke to the whole congregation of the people of Israel, they looked toward the wilderness, and behold, the glory of the Lord appeared in the cloud. 11And the Lord said to Moses, … ▤

This indicates that God spoke from the cloud (cf. Ex 19:9a ↓; Ex 24:16 ↓; Ex 33:9 ↓), affirming his presence within it.

Ex 19:9a, 16-17 And the Lord said to Moses, “Behold, I am coming to you in a thick cloud, that the people may hear when I speak with you, and may also believe you forever.” ▤ … 16On the morning of the third day there were thunders and lightnings and a thick cloud on the mountain and a very loud trumpet blast, so that all the people in the camp trembled. 17Then Moses brought the people out of the camp to meet God, and they took their stand at the foot of the mountain. ▤

Ex 24:16 The glory of the Lord dwelt on Mount Sinai, and the cloud covered it six days. And on the seventh day he called to Moses out of the midst of the cloud. ▤

Ex 33:9-10 When Moses entered the tent, the pillar of cloud would descend and stand at the entrance of the tent, and the Lordy would speak with Moses. 10And when all the people saw the pillar of cloud standing at the entrance of the tent, all the people would rise up and worship, each at his tent door. ▤

y Hebrew he

Ex 34:5 The Lord descended in the cloud and stood with him there, and proclaimed the name of the Lord. ▤

Ex 40:34-38 Then the cloud covered the tent of meeting, and the glory of the Lord filled the tabernacle. 35And Moses was not able to enter the tent of meeting because the cloud settled on it, and the glory of the Lord filled the tabernacle. 36Throughout all their journeys, whenever the cloud was taken up from over the tabernacle, the people of Israel would set out. 37But if the cloud was not taken up, then they did not set out till the day that it was taken up. 38For the cloud of the Lord was on the tabernacle by day, and fire was in it by night, in the sight of all the house of Israel throughout all their journeys. ▤

The cloud of God’s glory and presence, which had filled the tabernacle (vv. 34-35), guided the Israelites during all their travels (vv. 36-38).

Lev 16:2 … and the Lord said to Moses, “Tell Aaron your brother not to come at any time into the Holy Place inside the veil, before the mercy seat that is on the ark, so that he may not die. For I will appear in the cloud over the mercy seat. ▤

1Ki 8:10-12 And when the priests came out of the Holy Place, a cloud filled the house of the Lord, 11so that the priests could not stand to minister because of the cloud, for the glory of the Lord filled the house of the Lord. 12Then Solomon said, “The Lordz has said that he would dwell in thick darkness. ▤

z Septuagint The Lord has set the sun in the heavens, but

Just as the cloud of God’s glory and presence had filled the movable tabernacle (cf. Ex 40:34-35 ↑) to accompany the Israelites in their travels, it likewise later filled the completed temple in Jerusalem. Note that “thick darkness” can be rendered “dark cloud” (CEV, NCV, NIRV, NIV, NKJV; cf. NASB).

Matt 17:5 He was still speaking when, behold, a bright cloud overshadowed them, and a voice from the cloud said, “This is my beloved Son,a with whom I am well pleased; listen to him.” ▤

a Or my Son, my (or the) Beloved

Here God speaks from a bright cloud on the occasion of Jesus Christ’s transfiguration.

Acts 1:9 And when he had said these things, as they were looking on, he was lifted up, and a cloud took him out of their sight. ▤

A number of commentators consider this cloud to be, as in the above references, a manifestation of God’s presence.

Ps 18:11-12 He made darkness his covering, his canopy around him, thick clouds dark with water. 12Out of the brightness before him hailstones and coals of fire broke through his clouds. ▤

The description here appears to be figurative, although the writer is possibly alluding to earlier manifestations of God’s presence in a cloud (as per the above references).

God’s presence has been manifested with fire
See also:

Ex 40:38 ⇑
Ex 3:2-6 And the angel of the Lord appeared to him in a flame of fire out of the midst of a bush. He looked, and behold, the bush was burning, yet it was not consumed. 3And Moses said, “I will turn aside to see this great sight, why the bush is not burned.” 4When the Lord saw that he turned aside to see, God called to him out of the bush, “Moses, Moses!” And he said, “Here I am.” 5Then he said, “Do not come near; take your sandals off your feet, for the place on which you are standing is holy ground.” 6And he said, “I am the God of your father, the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob.” And Moses hid his face, for he was afraid to look at God. ▤

The “angel of the Lord” (v. 2) is identified with God (v. 4). God’s presence is here manifested in fire from within a bush.

Ex 13:21 And the Lord went before them by day in a pillar of cloud to lead them along the way, and by night in a pillar of fire to give them light, that they might travel by day and by night. ▤

Ex 19:18 Now Mount Sinai was wrapped in smoke because the Lord had descended on it in fire. The smoke of it went up like the smoke of a kiln, and the whole mountain trembled greatly. ▤

Ex 24:17 Now the appearance of the glory of the Lord was like a devouring fire on the top of the mountain in the sight of the people of Israel. ▤

Deut 4:11-12 And you came near and stood at the foot of the mountain, while the mountain burned with fire to the heart of heaven, wrapped in darkness, cloud, and gloom. 12Then the Lord spoke to you out of the midst of the fire. You heard the sound of words, but saw no form; there was only a voice. ▤

Deut 5:22 These words the Lord spoke to all your assembly at the mountain out of the midst of the fire, the cloud, and the thick darkness, with a loud voice; and he added no more. And he wrote them on two tablets of stone and gave them to me. ▤

Lev 9:24 And fire came out from before the Lord and consumed the burnt offering and the pieces of fat on the altar, and when all the people saw it, they shouted and fell on their faces. ▤

This is not necessarily saying that the fire was a manifestation of God’s presence, but it does at least associate the fire with God’s presence (cf. NIV, NLT).

God’s Holy Spirit was manifested in what looked like “tongues of fire”:
Acts 2:3-4 And divided tongues as of fire appeared to them and restedb on each one of them. 4And they were all filled with the Holy Spirit and began to speak in other tongues as the Spirit gave them utterance. ▤

b Or And tongues as of fire appeared to them, distributed among them, and rested

Note: God primarily dwells in heaven . . .
See also:

. . . God is enthroned in heaven
Verses which speak of God being in heaven are not understood to indicate that he is in any way confined to one location. But they do suggest that his form is such that his primary presence is in heaven. Note that some verses suggest that God is present throughout the earth through his Holy Spirit (cf. The Holy Spirit is correlated with God’s presence).

Deut 26:15 Look down from your holy habitation, from heaven, and bless your people Israel and the ground that you have given us, as you swore to our fathers, a land flowing with milk and honey. ▤

1Ki 8:30b And listen in heaven your dwelling place, and when you hear, forgive. ▤

2Chr 20:6a … and said, “O Lord, God of our fathers, are you not God in heaven? ▤

Job 22:12a “Is not God high in the heavens? ▤

Ps 20:6 Now I know that the Lord saves his anointed; he will answer him from his holy heaven with the saving might of his right hand. ▤

Ps 73:25 Whom have I in heaven but you? And there is nothing on earth that I desire besides you. ▤

Eccl 5:2 m Be not rash with your mouth, nor let your heart be hasty to utter a word before God, for God is in heaven and you are on earth. Therefore let your words be few. ▤

m Ch 5:1 in Hebrew

Isa 63:15a Look down from heaven and see, from your holy and beautifuln habitation. ▤

n Or holy and glorious

Matt 6:9 Pray then like this: “Our Father in heaven, hallowed be your name.o ▤

o Or Let your name be kept holy, or Let your name be treated with reverence

Acts 7:55 But he, full of the Holy Spirit, gazed into heaven and saw the glory of God, and Jesus standing at the right hand of God. ▤

Gen 28:17 And he was afraid and said, “How awesome is this place! This is none other than the house of God, and this is the gate of heaven.” ▤

Jacob was speaking after having a dream of a stairway reaching up to heaven, with God being above the stairway (cf. vv. 12-13).

Isa 40:22 It is he who sits above the circle of the earth, and its inhabitants are like grasshoppers; who stretches out the heavens like a curtain, and spreads them like a tent to dwell in; … ▤

. . . God’s temple is in heaven
There have been earthly temples of God. But as heaven is where God primarily dwells, that which is spoken of as ultimately being God’s temple is in heaven.

Ps 11:4 The Lord is in his holy temple; the Lord’s throne is in heaven; his eyes see, his eyelids test the children of man. ▤

Heb 8:5 They serve a copy and shadow of the heavenly things. For when Moses was about to erect the tent, he was instructed by God, saying, “See that you make everything according to the pattern that was shown you on the mountain.” ▤

The priests served at a sanctuary – initially in the tabernacle and then later the temple – which was set up to reflect God’s heavenly sanctuary or temple.

Rev 11:19 Then God’s temple in heaven was opened, and the ark of his covenant was seen within his temple. There were flashes of lightning, rumblings,p peals of thunder, an earthquake, and heavy hail. ▤

p Or voices, or sounds

The ark of the covenant signifies God’s presence (cf. The Ark of the Covenant and God’s Presence). The background to this reference is the ark of the covenant that was made according to God’s directions to Moses. It was kept in the Most Holy Place in the tabernacle and later in the temple. It contained the stone tablets on which were written the Ten Commandments. Together these tablets were also referred to as the “witness” (cf. Rev 15:5 ↓) – or “testimony” (NIV®) – as they “witnessed” to God’s covenant to Israel, which was based on the Ten Commandments.

Rev 15:5, 8 After this I looked, and the sanctuary of the tentq of witness in heaven was opened, ▤ … 8and the sanctuary was filled with smoke from the glory of God and from his power, and no one could enter the sanctuary until the seven plagues of the seven angels were finished. ▤

q Or tabernacle

This sanctuary appears to denote a/the temple of God (cf. CEV, GNT, NASB, NCV, NIRV, NIV, NKJV, NLT, NRSV).

Jonah 2:4, 7 Then I said, ‘I am driven away from your sight; yet I shall again look upon your holy temple.’ ▤ … 7When my life was fainting away, I remembered the Lord, and my prayer came to you, into your holy temple. ▤

In v. 4, “temple” appears to refer to the temple in Jerusalem, with Jonah speaking of looking towards it. Contrastingly, in v. 7 “temple” may refer to God’s heavenly temple, with Jonah speaking of his prayer rising to God and to his “temple”. The Israelites closely correlated these two temples. Note that although the following references do not actually mention heaven, like v. 7 here they appear to be speaking of heaven as God’s temple.

Ps 18:6 In my distress I called upon the Lord; to my God I cried for help. From his temple he heard my voice, and my cry to him reached his ears. ▤

Mic 1:2 Hear, you peoples, all of you;r pay attention, O earth, and all that is in it, and let the Lord God be a witness against you, the Lord from his holy temple. ▤

r Hebrew all of them

Hab 2:20 But the Lord is in his holy temple; let all the earth keep silence before him. ▤

God dwells in heaven but is also present on earth:
Isa 57:15 For thus says the One who is high and lifted up, who inhabits eternity, whose name is Holy: “I dwell in the high and holy place, and also with him who is of a contrite and lowly spirit, to revive the spirit of the lowly, and to revive the heart of the contrite. ▤

That God dwells in heaven but is present on earth too is also implied in 66:1a – ‘Thus says the Lord: “Heaven is my throne, and the earth is my footstool’.

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